By David Seddon

ISBN-10: 1857432126

ISBN-13: 9781857432121

This reference quantity is the definitive consultant to the economics and politics of the center East. It offers transparent definitions detailing phrases, strategies, names and companies utilized in relation to present financial or political opinions within the heart East. Entries outline, clarify and provides extra appropriate details on nations, areas, ethnic teams, political events, firms, regulations and disputes.

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Political instability in the 1990s threatened many projects and led to an exodus of skilled, mostly expatriate, workers. The situation is improving, however, and although the security and human rights situation remains repressive, there are signs that the long civil war is coming to an end. The Government’s continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector have, however, had little success in reducing poverty or high (nearly 30%) unemployment or in improving the availability of housing and living standards.

They also attempted to assassinate Barham Salih, the PUK’s Prime Minister. In the winter of 2002–03 they merged with another small group called Islah (‘reform’) to constitute Ansar al-Islam. The group has, perhaps, 1,000 members, who seek to establish an independent Islamic state in northern Iraq. The group has claimed to have produced cyanide-based toxins, ricin, and aflatoxin. It is also reputed to have had links with, or even to include, Afghan Arabs and members of al-Qa’ida, but this is denied by the leadership—although Ansar’s leader, Mullah Krekar, has described Osama bin Laden as ‘the jewel in the crown of the Muslim nation’.

Major industrial and commercial centre in central Anatolia. Population 3,582,000 (2003). ANO—Abu Nidal Organization Also known as the Fatah Revolutionary Council (FRC)—and also as the Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September and the Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. The ANO/FRC emerged as a result of a split from the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1974 by Sabri al-Banna (also known as ‘Abu Nidal’) after his split with Yasser Arafat following disagreements over the strategy and policy of the PLO.

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A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East by David Seddon

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