By Claire Annesley
A Political and financial Dictionary of Western Europe is a useful consultant for these looking rationalization of phrases, or a brief reference resource. the variety of entries is vast and encompasses the new background and economic system of every state of the sector in addition to political events, geographical good points, well known members, overseas firms and key companies. It presents over six hundred key definitions and provides an outline of the altering political dimensions of Western Europe and its family members with the ecu Union.
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During the Franco dictatorship in 1939–75 the Banco de España was an arm of the Ministry of Finance, but from 1959 the regime became slightly less interventionist. After 1975 the Banco de España was transformed into a central bank with full responsibility for the regulation and supervision of the financial system. The 1994 Ley de Autonomía (Law of Autonomy) awarded the bank significant freedom. A member of the European Union since 1986, Spain fulfilled the convergence criteria for membership of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and the Banco de España subsequently became a member of the European System of Central Banks, the Eurosystem and the European Central Bank (ECB).
As mayor, Brandt became a popular and prominent politician both in Germany and—following the construction of the Berlin Wall—internationally. During his years as mayor of the divided city he drew up with SPD colleague Egon Bahr the first phases of his Ostpolitik. He developed a programme called ‘Wandel durch Annäherung’ (change through rapprochement) and agreed a deal in 1963 with the GDR allowing West Berliners to travel to the East over the Christmas period. Brandt was the SPD’s Chancellor candidate against Konrad Adenauer in 1961 and against Ludwig Erhard in 1965.
Brown gained the reputation of ‘Iron Chancellor’ in the early years for his prudent management of the economy and control of public spending. He has, however, significantly improved the stability of the British economy and increased public spending on health and education. On becoming Chancellor, Brown immediately gave operational independence to the Bank of England and he stated in October 1997 that he would rule out Britain’s entry into the euro for the lifetime of the first Labour government and has, in addition to the formal convergence criteria of the European Union, set his own criteria to test the British economy’s suitability for membership of the single currency.
A Political and Economic Dictionary of Western Europe (Political and Economic Dictionaries) by Claire Annesley