By M.D. Fulton Roberts
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Human Blood Groups
Nevertheless there is sufficient H substance in the secretions of persons of all groups (if they are secretors) to neutralise anti-H. Non-secretors (sese) do not secrete H, though they have it on their cells. Probably the only people who do not have H on their cells are those lacking the gene X, and the first of such persons to be described (the " Bombay " type) had anti-H in the serum. I t is thus customary to refer to three genes, A, B and 0 , though the existence of the third gene as an entity t h a t is 56 HUMAN BLOOD GEOUPS something more than mere absence of A and B has not been proven.
Those belong to the subgroup P x (nearly 80 per cent, of persons in Europe) have no naturally-occurring anti-P in the serum, but those who are P 2 may have anti-P! ). Another antigen has recently been discovered in this system, called P*. The other blood-group system, called Lewis, displays a number of interesting features that are not found in other blood groups. It seems that two antigens can be recognised, called Le a and Left, but about 6 per cent, of persons carry neither of these antigens.
Some anti-B seems to be absorbed by A cells and vice versa, almost as if there were some antigenic component common to both groups and recognised by the sera of Group O persons, or some Group O persons, alone. I t is also of interest, and may be rele vant, t h a t the immune forms of anti-A or anti-B giving rise to hsemolytic disease of the newborn seem to arise far more commonly in mothers of Group O than in those of Group A or B. Neither of these observations has yet been satisfactorily explained.
An Introduction to Human Blood Groups by M.D. Fulton Roberts